The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
812.14 Shelley] John W. Shelley (d. 1939), executive of British El Aguila Oil.
814.1 Covadonga Day] In Spain, a holiday in the northeastern state of Asturias, where, in A.D. 718, in the mountain town of Covadonga, outnumbered Iberians triumphed in a bloody battle against the Moors, a victory said to be achieved through the grace of Mary.
814.6–7 Sanchez. . . Gaona] Mexican bullfighters Ignacio Sanchez Mejías (1891–1934) and Rodolfo Gaona y Jiménez (1888–1975).
814.8 Hattie Welton] Adventurer, circus performer, and owner of a riding school in Mexico City.
816.9 fronton] Jai alai arena.
816.10 Alameda] See note 100.22.
826.1–2 The silence. . . Pascal,] Cf. “Le silence éternel de ces espaces infinis m’effraie” (“The eternal silence of these infinite spaces frightens me”), from the Pensées of Blaise Pascal (1623–1666).
827.6 Mr. Toynbee] British historian Arnold Toynbee (1889–1975), author of the 12-volume work A Study in History (1934–61).
830.1 The Never-Ending Wrong] When this essay, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in June 1977, was published as a small book later the same summer, Porter added the following foreword:
“This book is not for the popular or best-selling list for a few weeks or months. It is a plain, full record of a crime that belongs to history.
“When a reporter from a newspaper here in Maryland asked to talk to me, he said he had heard that I was writing another book. . . what about?. . . I gave him the title and the names of Sacco and Vanzetti. There was a wavering pause. . . then: ‘Well, I don’t really know anything about them. . . for me it’s just history.’
“It is my conviction that when events are forgotten, buried in the cellar of the page—they are no longer even history.”
830.4–5 Nicola. . . Vanzetti] Ferdinando Nicola Sacco (1891–1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (1888–1927).
831.24 Webster Thayer] Judge Thayer (1857–1933), of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, was judge in both trials of Sacco and Vanzetti.
831.27 Rosa Baron] Rosa (or Rose) K. Baron (d. 1961) was National Prisoners’ Relief Director of the Communist Party’s International Labor Defense organization in 1925–46. She defended the legal rights of prosecuted Party members and others sympathetic to the Communist cause.
833.1 Leon Henderson] Henderson (1895–1986), in 1927 an economist with the Russell Sage Foundation, and his wife, Myrlie Hamm Henderson, raised money for the defense of Sacco and Vanzetti.
833.2 Governor Fuller] Alvan Tufts Fuller (1878–1958), Republican governor of Massachusetts in 1924–29.
834.5 Read those letters!] The Letters of Sacco and Vanzetti (1928), the source of the direct quotations from Sacco and Vanzetti used in this essay; the book was edited by Marion Denman Frankfurter (1891–1975), wife of Felix Frankfurter and his partner in the early activities of the American Civil Liberties Union, and Gardner Jackson (1896–1965), who covered the Sacco-Vanzetti case for The Boston Globe in 1921–26 and was secretary of Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee in 1926–27.
834.19 Mrs. Evans] Elizabeth G. Evans (1856–1937), of Brookline, Massachusetts, a wealthy donor to socially progressive causes who raised money for the defense of Sacco and Vanzetti.
835.5 Gardner Jackson] See note 834.5.
837.11–12 Lincoln Brigade] Abraham Lincoln Brigade, anti-Franco volunteers from the United States who fought alongside the Spanish Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War.
837.17 Bessie Beatty] Beatty (1886–1947), editor of McCall’s magazine, wrote The Red Heart of Russia (1919), an eyewitness account of the Russian Revolution.
837.19 Albert Rhys Williams] Williams (1883–1962), journalist whose sympathetic reports from Soviet Russia were collected in books including Through the Russian Revolution (1921).
837.29–30 Frank Tannenbaum] Tannenbaum (1893–1969), political journalist in Mexican, Russian, and African American affairs; later taught criminology at Cornell (1932–35) and Latin American history at Columbia (1935–65).
837.34–35 Third International] The Communist International (Com-intern), founded in Moscow in 1919, promoted the Communist cause in the West and worked toward the formation of an international Soviet republic.
840.4 From each. . . need.”] Communist slogan coined by Karl Marx in his “Critique of the Gotha Program” (1875).
841.33 AMTORG] Trading corporation serving Soviet import and export firms doing business with the United States, founded in 1924 by American entrepreneur Armand Hammer (1898–1990), the son of Russian immigrants.
841.37 ROSTA] Soviet news agency, 1918–35; superseded by TASS.
841.39 Kenneth Durant] Durant (1889–1972) became ROSTA’s American bureau chief in 1919. He worked from the offices of the United Press Association, on Park Row.
842.6–8 A perennial candidate. . . honest man.] William Z. Foster (1881–1961), General Secretary of the Communist Party USA from 1921 to 1957, was the Party’s candidate for United States president in the elections of 1924, 1928, and 1932.
842.15–17 Lola Ridge. . . Lumpkin] In August 1927, the political poet Lola Ridge (1873–1941) had published The Ghetto (1918), Sun-Up (1920), and Red Flag (1927); John Dos Passos (1896–1970) had published six books, including Manhattan Transfer (1925); the journalist Paxton Hibben (1880– 1928) had published an eyewitness account of the famine in Russia (1922); Michael Gold (1894–1967) had founded the Communist arts magazine New Masses; Helen O’Lochlainn Crowe had gained notoriety as a writer on labor and social causes; James Rorty (1891–1973) was a poet and the literary editor of New Masses; Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892–1950) had won the Pulitzer Prize in Poetry for The Harp-Weaver (1923); William Gropper (1897–1977) was a cartoonist for The Daily Worker and New Masses; and Grace Lumpkin (1892–1980) had published the first of the proletarian short stories that foreshadowed her novel To Make My Bread (1932).
843.18 Pink Tea] Nineteen-twenties’ slang term for a peaceful left-wing political demonstration.
845.33–34 Mr. Edward James] James (1873–1954), son of Robertson James, was the younger brother of William and Henry.
845.36 Jim Larkin] James (Big Jim) Larkin (1876–1947), Irish labor leader and social activist, was one of the guiding spirits of the Communist Party USA. In 1923, after serving three years of a ten-year sentence for committing acts of “criminal anarchy,” he was deported to Ireland, where he became head of the Irish Communist Party and the Workers’ Union of Ireland.
846.39 skew-gee] Off-course.
847.38 Herbert B. Ehrmann] Ehrmann (1891–1970), associate counsel for Sacco and Vanzetti, was the author of The Untried Case (1933, revised 1960) and The Case That Will Not Die (1969).
848.14 Felix Frankfurter] Frankfurter (1882–1965) wrote a journalistic account of the trial for The Atlantic Monthly (March 1927) and, years later, The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen (1961).
848.16 Mrs. J. Borden. . . Harriman] In 1927, Florence Jaffray Hurst Harriman (1870–1967) was known as a Washington hostess and the founder of the National Women’s Club of the Democratic Party.
849.19 Mrs. Leon Henderson] See note 833.1.
852.39 Giovinezza.”] “Youth,” the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party.
856.33 song about an Irish wake] “The Night That Paddy Murphy Died.”
856.37 the first line of the Internationale] “Stand up, wretched of the earth!”
856.38–39 Giovinezza. . . bellezza!”] “Youth, youth! Spring beauty!”
859.28 Mrs. Stuart Chase] Marian Tyler Chase (1897–1989), journalist and co-author of several books with her husband, the economist and social critic Stuart Chase (1888–1985).
859.36 Arthur Garfield Hays] Hays (1881–1954), general counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union and participant in several prominent civil rights trials of the 1920s and 1930s.
860.8 Baumes’ Law] New York State law (1926), drafted by Senator Caleb H. Baumes (1863–1937), calling for automat
861.4 the judge] James A. P. Parmenter (1860–1937), Boston municipal judge.
863.29 article by. . . Russell] “The End of the Myth: Sacco and Vanzetti 50 Years Later” by Francis Russell (1910–1989), author of Tragedy in Dedham: The Sacco and Vanzetti Case (1962) and Sacco and Vanzetti: The Case Resolved (1986).
864.21 Felipe Carillo] Felipe Carrillo Puerto (1874–1924), Porter’s lover in 1920–21, was governor of Yucatán from 1922 to 1924.
865.23 The State. . . monsters,”] Friedrich Nietzsche, in Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883–85).
865.26–27 Emma. . . life] Living My Life (1931) by anarchist Emma Goldman (1869–1940).
865.30 Prince. . . memoirs] Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1899) by Prince Peter Alexeyevich Kropotkin (1842–1921).
866.8 the Select] Café in Montparnasse, Paris.
869.7 Madero revolution] In 1910–11; see note 102.22.
871.6 La Muerte] Death.
872.3 Carranza] In 1914 Venustiano Carranza became the acting president of Mexico, and in 1917 the first president of Mexico under its present constitution; see note 76.8.
872.12 de la Huerta] Adolfo de la Huerta (1888–1955) was provisional president of Mexico from June 1 to December 1, 1920, from the murder of President Carranza to the inauguration of President Obregón.
873.1 Camara] Mexican House of Congress. Under the Constitution of 1917, the Mexican Congress is bicameral, with a Senate (Senado), or upper house, and a Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados), or lower house.
873.6 diputados] Mexican congressional deputies (analogous to U.S. representatives).
873.17 Soto y Gama] Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama (1880–1967), a Zapatista (see note 101.12–13).
873.24 Luis Leon] Luis L. León Uranga (1891–1981) held several important Cabinet-level posts in 1920–28.
876.19–20 Porfirio Diaz] See note 152.17.
876.26–27 And their swords. . . more.”] Isaiah 2:4.
878.28–30 Waddy. . . book] Waddy Thompson Jr. (1798–1868), U.S. representative from South Carolina, was ambassador to Mexico in 1842–44. He recorded his Mexican experiences in Recollections (1846).
879.7–12 Mary Guadalupe. . . Empress] See note 20.21–22.
881.12 Tilma] Cloak typically worn by native Mexican Indians until the 1600s. See note 20.21–22.
881.40 Teocalli] Sacred temple of the Aztecs, built atop a terraced pyramid.
883.24 GENERAL BENJAMÍN HILL] Although an autopsy determined that Hill (1874–1920), President Obregón’s nephew and close adviser, died from complications of a stomach ailment, partisans suspected that he was poisoned by enemies of the Obregón administration.
883.30 ships”] Dirigibles.
883.31 Alameda] See note 100.22.
884.26 San Felipe] Philip of Jesus, the first Mexican saint, crucified in 1596 in Nagasaki, Japan, and canonized in 1862.
885.10 Reina] Queen.
886.21 canoa] Canoe.
887.4 henequen fibre] Sisal.
889.16–17 Oaxaca bowl] Traditional dark brown clay bowl with brightly colored flower-like designs made in Oaxaca, central region of Mexico famous for its pottery.
891.30–31 La Adelita,”. . . “La Norteña,”] Four popular songs of Revolutionary Mexico: “La Adelita” and “La Norteña,” songs about soldaderas (female soldiers from the north, allied to Pancho Villa); “La Pajarera” (“The Bird”), attributed to Manuel María Ponce Cuéllar (1882–1948); “La Sandunga” (see note 158.8).
894.38 syndicalists] Members of the socialist and anarchist wing of the Mexican labor movement.
895.7–10 Calles. . . Capmany] Plutarco Elías Calles (1877–1955), Obregón’s secretary of the interior, later president of Mexico (1924–28); Adolfo de la Huerta (see note 872.12), Obregón’s secretary of finance; Alberto J. Pani (1878–1955), Obregón’s secretary of the treasury and secretary of foreign relations; Rafael Zuberán Capmany, Obregón’s secretary of labor and industry.
896.23 land-reform laws of Juárez] See note 102.22–23.
897.2 oratorio] Chapel or other designated place for prayer.
898.4–7 Carranza. . . May, 1920.] By the end of his elected term, Venustiano Carranza, the first post-Revolution president of Mexico (1914–20), was unpopular with those who wanted swifter government reform. In June 1919, General Álvaro Obregón, one of his most vocal critics, declared his intention to run for president in the June 1920 election. On April 8, 1920, in the run-up to the election, a worker for the Obregón campaign attempted to kill Carranza, and the president threatened Obregón with arrest. Obregón withdrew from the race to declare an armed revolt against Carranza; days later, military supporters of Obregón published their plan to form a junta that, after removing Carranza from office, would hold a free and fair popular election. On May 21, after fleeing Mexico City, Carranza was intercepted en route to Veracruz and killed by revolutionary forces led by General Rodolfo Herrera. Adolfo de la Huerta was named provisional president until December 1, 1920, when Obregón took office after a decisive victory in the popular election.
899.6 Lupe Sánchez] General Guadalupe Sánchez (1856–1933), chief of military operations in the state of Veracruz.
899.7–8 Candido Aguilar] General Cándido Aguilar (1889–1960), Carranza’s son-in-law, was governor of Veracruz in 1917–20.
899.12 La Suerte] Luck or fortune.
899.34 Trevino] General Jacinto B. Treviño (1883–1971) returned from military studies in Europe to join the revolt against Carranza.
903.11 Senator Fall] Albert B. Fall (1861–1944), U.S. senator (Republican) from New Mexico (1912–21) and secretary of the interior under President Warren Harding (1921–23). He led the 1919 Senate investigation into post-Revolution Mexican-American oil futures, which heightened U.S. economic fears of Mexican appropriation and nationalization of U.S. holdings there.
903.13–14 Vasconcelos. . . Villarreal] José Vasconcelos (1881–1959), Mexican man of letters and Obregón’s secretary of education; Antonio I. Villarreal (1879–1944), a founder of the Mexican Labor Party and Obregón’s secretary of agriculture and development.
904.10–11 Guggenheims and Dohenys] By the early 1920s, the sons of Meyer Guggenheim (1828–1905) controlled much of North American mining and smelting, and Edward J. Doheny (1865–1935), founder of PanAmerican Petroleum and its Mexican affiliate, Huasteca, controlled much of its oil.
904.22 Guffey] Joseph F. Guffey (1870–1959), owner of AGWI, a U.S. oil company with strong Mexican connections.
905.2 Esteban Cantu] Colonel Esteban Cantú Jiménez (1881–1966), governor of Baja California under Carranza and a political adversary of Obregón.
905.24 Pablo Gonzales] General Pablo Gonzáles Garza (1879–1950) plotted the ambush of Emiliano Zapata (April 10, 1919) at the behest of President Carranza and was later hunted as a traitor by the Obregón regime. He was eventually captured, tried, and condemned to death, but released on orders of President Calles. He was exiled from Mexico, and lived in San Antonio, Texas, until his death.
906.19 Zapata’s horde] See note 101.12–13.
907.33 five men] General Sidronio Méndez and his sons (both officers); General Fernando Vizcaino; and General Carlos Greene.
908.36 Luis Morones] Luis Napoleón Morones (1890–1946) was Calles’s secretary of economy in 1924, a position he abused for his own financial gain.
909.15 magazine] Vasconcelos published the magazine El Maestro (“The Master”) and in 1924 founded La Antorcha (“The Torch”).
909.23 Manuel Gamio] Gamio (1883–1960), archaeologist and one of the leaders of the indigenest movement in Mexico. Porter became friends with him shortly after her arrival in Mexico in 1920.
909.29 Jorge Enciso] Enciso (1879–1969), designer and painter, was Inspector General of Artistic Monuments 1916–20.
909.31 Adolfo Best-Maugard] See note 544.35–36.
910.17 Land and liberty. . . forever!”] “¡Tierra y Libert
914.20 Oaxaca bowl] See note 889.16–17.
914.31 Emperor Maximilian’s time] The 1860s.
915.13 La Cocinera] Female cook.
916.29 Pobrecito!] Poor little thing!
918.21 Musetta Waltz] Leitmotif from La Bohème (1896) by Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924).
919.3 Yo solita] Lonely little me.
920.4–5 Yo te amo. . . Lindo.”] “I love you, Heavenly One.”
921.15 jota] Spanish dance rhythm in three-quarters time.
927.4–5 manzanilla] Chamomile.
929.1 The Charmed Life] The unnamed subject of this memoir is Porter’s friend William Niven (1850–1937), a Scottish-born American mineralogist and archaeologist. He arrived in Mexico in 1890 to promote gold mining and the construction of a railroad, but by 1910 his interests had shifted to the Valley of Mexico, especially the area around Atzcapotzalco, where he unearthed thousands of artifacts.
936.33 Victoriano Huerta] Huerta (1854–1916) was, after a coup d’etat in which he seized power from Francisco I. Madero, president of Mexico, 1913–14. When forced from office by revolutionary forces, he went into voluntary exile.
936.38 Bertram D. Wolfe] Wolfe (1896–1977), American historian and journalist whose lifelong subjects were the revolutions in Mexico and Russia.
937.20 Pancho Villa] See note 76.7.
943.3 The Itching Parrot] Porter prefaced her translation of Lizardi’s novel with the following note:
“The first full translation from the Spanish of El Periquillo Sarniento was made by Eugene Pressly, who lived a number of years in Mexico and had made a study of the Mexican popular language and slang in which the novel was partly written, and on which its first appeal to the Mexican public was based. I edited it and revised it at great length. Ford Madox Ford then kindly read it, found it still much too long, and offered suggestions for further deletions. The final editing and cutting was done by Donald Elder, of Doubleday, Doran and Company, and at last the story has been stripped of its immense accumulation of political pamphlets and moral disquisitions, which served their purpose once, let us hope, as the author meant them to. What remains, I believe, is a typical picaresque novel, almost the last of its kind.